Organizational Bahavior Notes


CONFLICTS AND NEGOTIATIONS

 

CONFLICT:
Conflict means disagreement, clash, difference of opinion and variance.
Conflict can occur at the individual, interpersonal, group and organizational levels. Conflicts create difficulties in management and the working of organizations and groups.
Some kinds of conflicts are discussed briefly below.

Organizational
Intergroup

Interpersonal

Intra-individual

INTRA-INDIVIDULAL CONFLICT:
Intra-individual conflict means the conflicts that occur within one individual. As a person has different goals and needs. So when some times he does not reach those goals due to some factors and difficulties there arise a clash and conflict within the individual which is called intra-individual conflict. Within every one individual there are usually

# A number of competing goals and needs
# A variety of ways that those roles and drives can be expressed
# Many types of barriers that can occur between the drive and the goal, and
# Both positive and negative aspects attached to the desired goals.

CONFLICT DUE TO FRUSTRATION:
Frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before a person reaches a desired goal. The barrier may be either overt (outward or physical) or covert (inward or mental-socio-psychological). A smooth progression of the need-drive- incentive motivational cycle and fulfillment of one’s expectations do not always occur in reality. There are some difficulties and barriers that do not let a person achieve his goals and so they cause in frustration.

EXAMPLE:
An example of frustrating situation might be that of a person who comes against a stuck door which prevents him from reaching a water fountain. The reaction of the person is called his defense-mechanism. The reactions in a frustrating situation can be categorized into four groups; aggression, withdrawal, fixation, and compromise.  

The person will have one of the above four mechanisms like;

See chart in next page       

 
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