Organizational Bahavior Notes




Diversity means variation and a clear difference.  And in the study of organizational behavior it means different people working in a group and organization. As in today’s environment people come from different countries and regions with different cultures, races, languages, values and norms so we say that today’s firms and organizations have become diverse. Another face of diversity means that people of different age groups (young and old) and both genders (male and female) work in the same organization. This “Diversity” makes the organizations a mixture of different people. So this has become a challenge and test for the management to manage this diversity to make the organization an efficient one.
The UN or United Nations Organization and many international organizations and NGOs have a diverse management as there are people with different cultures and nationalities working in the same organization side by side. 

Some of the reasons for diversity in organizations all over the world and particularly in America are Legislations and laws, competitive pressures, desire and need for more diverse viewpoints, rapidly growing international business, and changing work force demographics.

1. laws and legislations;
The most important reason for the diversity in organizations is laws and legislations. The political and legal systems have compelled organizations the organizations to hire more broadly and provide equal opportunity to all the employees regardless of their gender, race or color.

       Age Discrimination Act 1978: In USA this law first increased the age for retirement from 65 to 70 years and then eliminated this upper age limit.

2. competitive pressures;
Today all the organizations compete with each other and to cope with this pressure organizations hire more diverse work force to have an edge over their competitors and to make use of the talents and capabilities of their diverse work force.
EXAMPLE: - Many companies these days hire more women and minorities to take advantage of their talents and capabilities to perform their works and tasks in a better way.

3. desire for diverse viewpoints;
In the process of management, one point of view can not be effective and as useful as many thoughts and viewpoints. So if organizations have people with different cultures and backgrounds so they will have difference in behavior and thinking and their ideas will differ from one another. And this is one strong reason for the diversity of organizations.
EXAMPLE:  In management we need solution to a problem. If we have different ideas and thoughts then it is much easier for the manager to choose the best solution.

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