Organizational Bahavior Notes


DECISION MAKING

 

DEFINITION
Decision making is the “choosing among the alternatives”. So, it means that when we have more than one choice we have to decide among the choices and this process of choosing one alternative is called decision making.
Decision making is the most important function of a manager. A manager is involved in the process of decision making every thing he does. For example, while doing the function of planning, at every step the manager has to make decisions and choose from the alternatives and choices. While staffing, the manager here also has to make decisions of how to choose staff and which one to choose. Same is the case with the organizing, while organizing a manger has to decide that what should be placed where and who should be working at which position?
So, the above example shows that decision making is the most important of all the duties of a manager and without it none of the managerial functions is complete and effective.

STEPS IN DECISION MAKING
According to Herbert A. Simon, a Noble Prize winning decision theorist, the process of decision making is a three step process:

1. intelligence activity. The word “intelligence” is borrowed from the military. Which means to get information on the environment? So, here this first phase consists of the searching the environment for the conditions needing decisions making.

2. design activity. During this second phase, the actions of inventing, developing, and analyzing possible courses of action take place.

3. choice activity. The third and final phase is the actual choice, which means selecting a particular course of action from among those available alternatives.

PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUES
Participation means the contribution and involvement of people in any task. At first it was considered that decision making is only the job of the manger and the owner of the business and no one else can interfere in this process. And all that workers have to do is to obey the orders. But like everything else, the patterns and techniques of decision making have also changed and there is an awakened feeling that unity is strength and “two is better than one” certainly in the case of decision making. No matter how much a person gets experienced and knowledgeable but there is always a restriction to thinking and a single mind can not analyze all sides of a problem. So, in today’s modern organization a participative technique is used while making decisions. A problem is paced in front of the workers and then everyone gives his/her suggestion of how should it be solved. It was found that the more the individuals know about the problem the more are the chances of solving the problem. So, mangers should define the problem in the easiest possible words so that everyone can recognize and then give a possible solution.

CREATIVITY AND GROUP DECISION MAKING CREATIVITY:             
Creativity is the ability to think in a different way and give new and useful ideas. Of course, creativity is a God gifted talent and some people are born with it. And they are very creative while solving a problem.
In today’s competitive and global environment organizations need to be creative and innovative to be more efficient than their competitors. So, management of all the organizations should promote creativity and innovations. They

 
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